A audácia de Avigdor Lieberman
Dos Estados Unidos
Um amigo e colega confiável jura que viu o seguinte incidente alguns anos atrás nos territórios ocupados por Israel. Um médico palestino, precisando urgentemente de permissão para viajar, estava tentando persuadir um soldado em uma barricada na estrada a permitir que ele continuasse até a próxima cidade. Primeiramente, ele tentou falar com o guarda sem expressão em hebraico, no qual muitos árabes são fluentes, mas não recebeu resposta. Então fez uma tentativa em inglês, que é algo como uma língua franca local, mas ainda assim não conseguiu resultado melhor. Após um intervalo desagradável de não-comunicação mútua, tornou-se evidente que a única palavra que o soldado israelense sabia era não, e a única língua na qual conseguia falar isto era em russo.
As palavras ocupação e desapropriação são jogadas por ali bem livremente, mas eu convido você a imaginar uma vida sob ocupação na qual o seu policial hostil da vizinhança nem mesmo falasse a língua do estado ao qual servia, para não dizer qualquer língua conhecida de você. Falando nisso, há uma considerável chance de que o soldado nem fosse judeu; é um segredo descoberto em Israel que dezenas de milhares de imigrantes russos usaram documentos falsificados como uma forma de saírem do seu país natal, fingindo exercitar o "direito de retorno". Então aqui está mais um insulto para encher aqueles cujos trisavós nasceram na Palestina, mas ainda assim são tratados como se vivessem lá apenas por consentimento.
Apesar disso, se você for um ex-leão-de-chácara nascido na Moldávia soviética, como Avigdor Lieberman, você pode vir morar na Terra Santa como de direito e tornar-se o líder de um partido que propõe instituir um "juramento de lealdade" não apenas para os cidadãos árabes do Estado de Israel, mas para todos os membros judeus de seitas religiosas ortodoxas que não se declaram como sionistas. E este partido grotesco, chamado de Israel Beiteinu, ou "Israel é nosso lar", é agora o influente, e o seu líder é o pistolão no processo eleitoral israelense.
No início de seu período como imigrante em Israel, Lieberman foi, por pouco tempo, um membro do Kach, o grupo histérico liderado pelo Rabino Meir Kahane, que era morbidamente obcecado com a vida sexual dos árabes e que gritava pela sua expulsão em massa ou - para empregar o eufemismo comum - "transferência". Agora, de alguma forma, ele refinou sua posição, pregando uma troca de territórios e pessoas que se aproximaria mais de uma partição ou mesmo de uma solução de dois estados. Mas como no caso de qualquer uma destas propostas, isto ainda deixa um grande número de árabes sob a soberania israelense, tanto na Cisjordânia como no "território" de Israel. Duvido que Lieberman esteja realmente falando sério quanto a quaisquer negociações de "terra para paz" -- ele discutiu até com Ariel Sharon sobre a retirada de Gaza, então, se fosse por ele, supostamente haveria mais colonos israelenses na faixa. Ele mudou todo o tom do argumento ao decidir questionar a presença dos árabes israelenses que, ao contrário dos seus primos sob ocupação, gozam do direito de cidadania e voto, bem como do privilégio de viver sob a bandeira israelense.
O melhor livro sobre esta comunidade extremamente interessante e negligenciada foi escrito pelo romancista israelense David Grossman em 1992, e se chama "Sleeping on a Wire". Ele contém micro-flashes de esclarecimento (como a probabilidade de que mais árabes israelenses falem hebraico do que judeus americanos) e também algumas reflexões memoráveis sobre a língua e sua relação com literatura e cultura. Todos lembramos que Maimônides escrevia fluentemente em árabe, mas talvez seja menos conhecido que: "A conversa cotidiana dos israelenses palestinos cintila com expressões da Bíblia e do Talmud, de Bialik e Rabino Yehuda Halevy e Agnon. O poeta Naim Araideh derrama: 'Você sabe o que significa escrever em hebraico para mim? Você sabe como é escrever na língua na qual o mundo foi criado?' "
Pode-se não desejar ir tão longe assim, mas permanece o caso que o marxista árabe-israelense Emile Habibi, autor do romance clássico "The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist" foi premiado uma vez com o prêmio anual de Israel para melhor produção literária em hebraico.
Pode-se acrescentar que os mísseis do Hamás e Hezbollah caem sobre estas pessoas, também, em Jaffa e outras cidades, exatamente como eles caem sobre os armênios e drusos israelenses. As discussões e imbricações que unem e formam as camadas dos candidatos contraditórios à terra da Palestina são tão fortes quanto sutis, tão antigas quanto modernas. É por isso que Grossman ficou tão deprimido ao descobrir, no final do seu livro, que a lembrança de 1948 ainda estava nítida mesmo entre os mais bem-sucedidos e prósperos árabes israelenses e que todos eles se sentiam inseguros e secretamente temiam uma renovação da exigência pela sua expulsão. Em 1993, ele se sentiu capaz, até certo ponto, de tranqüilizá-los quanto a isto.
Agora temos que assistir ao surgimento de um brutamontes e um demagogo que tem exigido, com prazer, a execução dos membros árabes eleitos do Parlamento de Israel se eles se encontrarem com o Hamás, que tem exigido o afogamento dos prisioneiros palestinos no Mar Morto, cujos apoiadores cantam "Morte aos árabes" nos seus comícios, e que tem materializado os piores medos daqueles árabes que tem feito os ajustes de mais longa duração com o estado judeu. De qualquer forma, o estilo essencialmente totalitário e inquisitorial de Avigdor Lieberman pode estar ainda mais manifesto na sua insistência que os haredim não-sionistas, ou judeus devotos, também façam um juramento de lealdade ou percam a sua cidadania. Isto leva o machado à raiz da idéia de que os judeus têm uma presença em Jerusalém desde tempos imemoriais e que seus direitos resultantes não são derivados ou dependentes de qualquer estado ou qualquer ideologia. Será uma vergonha se Benjamin Netanyahu fizer uma aliança, mesmo que temporária, com Lieberman. Por mais questionável que o "direito de retorno" já possa ser, ele certamente não pode conceder o direito de expulsar.
Christopher Hitchens é jornalista, escritor e colunista de Vanity Fair e Slate Magazine. É autor do livro "Deus não é Grande: como a religião envenena tudo". Artigo distribuído pelo The New York Times Syndicate.
Opiniões expressas aqui são de exclusiva responsabilidade do autor e não necessariamente estão de acordo com os parâmetros editoriais de Terra Magazine.
The Gaza ghetto
A street destroyed in Rafah, southern Gaza, after the war which claimed 1,300 Palestinian and 13 Israeli lives. A top UN official remarked, "It may not be very clear who actually won this conflict, if such a concept means anything in Gaza, but I think it's pretty clear who lost and that was the civilian population of Gaza."
The Gaza ghetto
Children on the ruins of their destroyed mosque in the town of Jabalya. Half of the 1.4m people who live in Gaza are children, and at least 292 were killed and 1,500 injured during Israel's 18-day offensive. Kawather Abed Rabbo, a mother from Jabalya, described how her two daughters, aged two and eight, were killed when they tried to run to safety after a tank started shelling their house: "They had a white flag, made out of our scarves. But as they opened the door there was machine gun fire from the tank."
The Gaza ghetto
Palestinians survey the wreckage in Jabalya on January 20. Many had been unable to leave their houses for three weeks. With Hamas fighters staying mostly in residential areas throughout the conflict, Israeli attempts to eradicate them were focused in the towns and cities of Gaza. In all, their bombing and bulldozers destroyed more than 4,000 buildings, leaving over 50,000 Gazans homeless and 400,000 without running water.
The Gaza ghetto
The scene near Jabalya refugee camp. Many streets are covered in sewage, and food and medicine are in short supply. One estimate for the cost of repairing the damage caused by Israel's assault is almost $2bn. King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia has said that his country will donate half.
The Gaza ghetto
Workers scavenge for boxes of food on rubble that was once their factory in Jabalya, in the northern Gaza Strip. After Israeli forces retreated from the ruins of Gaza, thousands of Hamas supporters took to the streets claiming victory.
The Gaza ghetto
A Palestinian woman in Jabalya refugee camp. This area used to be a haven of fertile farming land and citrus trees.
The Gaza ghetto
Palestinian medics search for bodies amongst the rubble at Beit Lahiya after the ceasefire. Speaking from his hospital bed, Fared al-Bayar, a father of six, described the situation he now faces: "I left my home and it was OK, but I don't know what happened to it. So far all of my neighbours' homes have been demolished. I have no place to go to when I leave the hospital. Maybe we will have to put up a tent."
Date of birth = Birth date and age|1958|6|5|mf=y
Place of birth = Kishinev, Soviet Union
Year of Aliyah = 1978
Date of death =
Knesset(s) = 15th, 16th, 17th (current)
Party = Yisrael Beiteinu
Former parties = National Union
Gov't roles = Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Strategic Affairs
Minister of Transportation
Minister of National Infrastructure
Avigdor Levi Lieberman ( _he. אביגדור ליברמן, also spelled Liberman, born 5 June 1958) is an Israeli politician and leader of the Yisrael Beiteinu party.
In October 2006, Lieberman and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert signed a coalition agreement. Under the agreement, Lieberman became the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Strategic Affairs, a new position with a focus towards the strategic threat from Iran. [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3318674,00.html PM, Lieberman sign coalition deal] Ynetnews, October 23, 2006.] However, he left the cabinet when Yisrael Beiteinu resigned from the coalition in January 2008.A polarizing figure within Israeli politics, Lieberman is quoted as saying, "I've always been controversial because I offer new ideas. For me to be controversial, I think this is positive." [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/12/07/news/mideast.php A hard-line Israeli official, Avigdor Lieberman, stakes out extreme positions] ]
Born in Kishinev in the Soviet Union (today Chişinău, Moldova), Lieberman worked as a nightclub bouncer in Moldavia, [ [http://www.tnr.com/politics/story.html?id=1ca859ac-c2ef-48a3-9326-5927c7b3c21b The Father of Palestine] (subscribers-only access), The New Republic, 13 February 2008] and as a broadcaster in Baku before emigrating to Israel in 1978 at the age of 21. In Israel he served in the Israel Defense Forces, and received a BA in International Relations and Political Science from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
From 1983 to 1988 Lieberman helped found the "Zionist Forum for Soviet Jewry" and was a member of the "Board of the Jerusalem Economic Corporation" and the Secretary of the Jerusalem branch of the "Histadrut Ovdim Le'umit" ("National Workers' Union"). From 1993 to 1996 he served as Director-General of the Likud party, and from 1996 to 1997 was Director-General of the Prime Minister's office serving Benjamin Netanyahu. In 1999 he founded the Yisrael Beiteinu party, and was the editor of the newspaper "Yoman Yisraeli" ("Israeli Diary"). Lieberman supports Israeli membership of the European Union and NATO. [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/808111.html Avigdor Lieberman: Israel should press to join NATO, EU] , Ha'aretz, January 1, 2007.]
Lieberman was elected to the Knesset in 1999, and served as Chairman of the "Israel-Moldova Parliamentary Friendship League". In March 2001 Lieberman was appointed Minister of National Infrastructure, but resigned the post in March 2002. He was re-elected in January 2003 as part of a joint National Union-Yisrael Beiteinu list, and in February was appointed Minister of Transportation. However, he was sacked from the cabinet by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon in May 2004 due to his opposition to the disengagement plan.
Lieberman is married, with three children, and resides in Nokdim in the West Bank.
In late May 2004, Lieberman proposed a plan in which the populations and territories of Israeli Jews and Arabs, including some Israeli Arabs, would be "separated". According to the plan, Israeli Arab town adjacent to Palestinian Authority areas would be transferred to Palestinian Authority, and only those Arabs who felt a connection with the State of Israel and were loyal to it would be allowed to remain. On May 30 Prime Minister Ariel Sharon condemned Lieberman's statements, stating "We regard Israeli Arabs as part of the State of Israel." [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=433141 Lieberman presents to Russia plan to expel 'disloyal' Arabs] Ha'aretz, May 30, 2004.] On 4 June 2004, as the disputes over the up-coming disengagement plan grew more intense, Sharon dismissed Lieberman from the cabinet. [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=435378 PM sacks National Union ministers] , Ha'aretz, June 5, 2004.] [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/jun/05/israel Sharon sacks hardliners who stand in his way] The Guardian, June 5, 2004.]
Many Israelis see Lieberman's plan as a form of forced population transfer similar to proposals by the far-right Israeli political parties such as Moledet, Herut or Hayil.Fact|date=March 2008 Though Lieberman's plan would not uproot Arab residents from their homes, it would forcibly revoke their Israeli citizenship and transfer their sovereignty to the Palestinian Authority. The plan has drawn sharp criticism from both Left and Right of Israeli politics; by the former for its discriminatory overtones, and by the latter for the idea of ceding parts of the Land of Israel.Fact|date=March 2008
According to Lieberman, "The peace process is based on three false basic assumptions; that Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the main cause of instability in the Middle East, that the conflict is territorial and not ideological, and that the establishment of a Palestinian state based on the 1967 borders will end the conflict." [ [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3338320,00.html Lieberman: The unfaithful cannot be citizens] Ynetnews, December 10, 2006.]
Popularity and constituency
In a poll published by Yedioth Ahronoth on September 21, 2006, Lieberman had more support than any politician except for Netanyahu to be the next Prime Minister of Israel (Olmert came in fifth, with 7%). [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3306587,00.html Poll: Only 7 percent want Olmert as PM] Ynetnews, September 21, 2006.] Some Druze support Lieberman, and one third of the Israeli Druze living in Golan Heights voted for him. [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3315769,00.html Nobody's citizens] Ynetnews, October 16, 2006.] The majority of his constituency are secular Russian-speaking Israelis as well as former Likud supporters, who feel that party has drifted from its founding Jabotinskian principles.cn|date=May 2008
Population exchange and loyalty tests
Lieberman advocates giving the Palestinian Authority Arab-Israeli towns near the West Bank and having Arabs who remain Israeli citizens take loyalty tests. Those who refuse would be stripped of their citizenship, but could remain in Israel as permanent residents.Myre, Greg. (2006, December 7.) [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/07/world/middleeast/07mideast.html?pagewanted=print Israeli Official Discusses Iran and His Controversial Agenda] . "New York Times".] [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/11/05/africa/ME_GEN_Israel_Lieberman.php New Cabinet minister Lieberman calls on government to separate Jews and Arabs] . "Associated Press", 5 November 2006. Quote: Under Lieberman's proposal, Arabs permitted to remain in Israel would have to pass a loyalty test to keep their citizenship. Arabs make up roughly one-fifth of Israel's population.] [http://www.economist.com/world/displaystory.cfm?story_id=5654988 Israel's new politics: Shutting itself in, hoping for the best] (subscribers-only access), The Economist, March 23, 2006.]
Bombing commercial centers and drowning prisoners
Following nine Palestinian attacks on Israelis during a two day period in March 2002, [- [http://www.nyjtimes.com/Heritage/News/Mar402.htm 'Weekend of terror leaves 23 Israelis dead'] , March 4, 2002.
- On March 4, the first Qassam rocket attack of March 2002 was made into Israel, there were no casualties. (Source: IDF Spokesperson Statistics).Fact|date=April 2008
- [http://news.walla.co.il/?w=/22/191379] Palestinian gunmen took up a position on a pedestrian bridge above Petah Tikva Road at the center of Tel Aviv and attacked two restaurants below, "The Steak Gathering" and "Sea Food Market" killing 3 Israelis and injuring 31 (four severely).
- [http://news.walla.co.il/?w=//191728] suicide bomber detonated in an Egged No. 823 bus.
- [http://www.nfc.co.il/Archive/001-D-6138-00.html?tag=23] [http://www.gamla.org.il/english/memorial/e310.htm] Bethlehem bypass "tunnel" attack.
- [http://www.camera.org/index.asp?x_context=3&x_outlet=1&x_article=823] [http://www.nrg.co.il/online/archive/ART/258/091.html] [http://sderotmedia.com/?p=54] Qassam rocket attack on Sderot injured a 16 month-old baby.] the Israeli daily Yedioth Ahronoth quoted Lieberman's proposal for an ultimatum to the Palestinians to halt all terror activity or face wide-ranging attacks on commercial centers: "if it were up to me I would notify the Palestinian Authority that tomorrow at ten in the morning we would bomb all their places of business in Ramallah, for example." [ [http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-1727248,00.html]
- Following terrorist acts in recent days right wing politicians suggest to open war, bomb civilian targets in the Palestinian Authority and conquer the West Bank.
_he. - בעקבות הפיגועים בימים האחרונים מציעים פוליטיקאים מהימין לפתוח במלחמה, להפציץ מטרות אזרחיות ברשות ולכבוש את הגדה.
- Minister of Infrastructure Avigdor Lieberman said: "If it were up to me I would notify the Palestinian Authority that tomorrow at ten in the morning we would bomb all their places of business in Ramallah, for example."
_he. - שר התשתיות אביגדור ליברמן אמר: "אם היה הדבר תלוי בי הייתי מודיע לרשות שמחר בעשר בבוקר אנו נפציץ את כל בתי העסק שלהם ברמאללה, למשל".] This led Foreign Minister Shimon Peres to respond that excessive military measures could lead to accusations of war crimes. [Paul Peachey: [http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/article191213.ece We risk charges of war crimes, Peres tells Cabinet] The Independent, March 7, 2002.]
In July 2003, reacting to a commitment made by Ariel Sharon to the US, where amnesty could be given to approximately 350 Palestinian prisoners including members of Hamas and Islamic Jihad, Lieberman rejected a chance to participate in the related committee and said "It would be better to drown these prisoners in the Dead Sea if possible, since that's the lowest point in the world,"McGreal, Chris. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jul/25/israel Palestinian PM's leadership at stake when he pleads with Bush to help free detainees.] "The Guardian", 25 July 2003.] Abu Toameh, Khaled. (2003, 21 July.) [http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-75596261.html PA prepares own dossier on 'incitement'.] ] Chazan, Guy. [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB105952212075781800.html?mod=googlewsj Hawkish Palestinian TV Starts to Incubate Doves.] Wall Street Journal] Liebreman continued, according to Galei Tzahal ('Israel Army Radio'), stating his willingness, as Minister of Transport, to supply buses to take the prisoners there. [ [http://news.walla.co.il/?w=//409686 'Lieberman offered to drown the Palestinian prisoners at sea'] by Walla!, July 6, 2003
- On Galei Tzahal it was reported that Lieberman said at the cabinet meeting that as Minister of Transport he's willing to provide buses to take them at sea and drown them there.
_he. בגלי צה"ל דווח שליברמן אמר בישיבת הממשלה שכשר התחבורה הוא מוכן לספק אוטובוסים לאסירים שיקחו אותם לים ולהטביע אותם שם.] Lieberman's suggestion also led to confrontation between Lieberman and Arab-Israeli MKs Ahmed Tibi (Hadash-Ta'al), Jamal Zahalka (Balad), Taleb el-Sana, Abdelmalek Dahamsha (United Arab List) as well as opposition leader Shimon Peres. [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=315541 Lieberman blasted for suggesting drowning Palestinian prisoners] Ha'aretz, July 8, 2006.]
Israeli Arab MKs as collaborators
In November 2006, Lieberman called for the execution of any Arab Knesset members who meet with representatives of the Palestinian government, saying, "World War II ended with the Nuremberg trials. The heads of the Nazi regime, along with their collaborators, were executed. I hope this will be the fate of the collaborators in [the Knesset] ." [ [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull&cid=1145961280390 Lieberman calls Arab MKs who meet with Hamas 'collaborators'] Jerusalem Post, May 4, 2006.] In response, Ahmad Tibi demanded that "a criminal investigation be initiated against Lieberman for violating the law against incitement and racism". [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3323027,00.html Prosecution: Lieberman's anti-Arab remarks kosher] Ynetnews, November 2, 2006.] Lieberman was cleared of racism charges by the Israeli Deputy State prosecutor, while admitting that the office objected to the content of his statement. Tibi strongly objected to Lieberman's ministerial appointment, describing him as "a racist and a fascist". Labour minister Ophir Pines-Paz, who resigned over Lieberman's appointment, echoed Tibi's remarks, saying that Lieberman was tainted "by racist declarations and declarations that harm the democratic character of Israel". [http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/article1943313.ece Labour minister quits over Lieberman's role] The Independent, October 31, 2006.]
In remarks in the Knesset in March 2008, shortly after the 6 March attack at Jerusalem's Mercaz HaRav yeshiva, Lieberman stated that "yesterday's attack can not be disconnected from the Arab MKs incitement, which we hear daily in the Knesset." [Haaretz Service:Lieberman: Jerusalem attack is product of Arab MK incitement [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/961964.html] ] and, directed at Arab MKs, that "a new administration will be established and then we will take care of you." [Shahar Ilan:Lieberman to Arab MKs: One day we will 'take care of you' [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/962767.html] ]
Jericho Casino corruption investigation
In January 2008 Yisrael Beiteinu left the government and Lieberman left his position as Minister of Strategic Affairs, and almost immediately afterwards, "Arutz Sheva" reported that an investigation against Lieberman and his daughter that had been "ongoing for years, suddenly became active again once he left the government last week." [Ezra HaLevi. [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:N1CYDILLtoYJ:www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/125032+%22The+investigation+against+Lieberman+and+his+daughter+have+been+ongoing+for+years,+but+suddenly+became+active+again+once+he+left+the+government+last+week.%22+site:israelnationalnews.com&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1 Exposé Links Olmert, Lieberman and Sharon to Jericho Casino] Arutz Sheva 01/24/08] An investigative exposé in Haaretz "targeting Lieberman...unearthed connections between the financier of the corruption-laden Oasis Casino in Jericho and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and his predecessor Ariel Sharon." [Ezra HaLevi. [http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:N1CYDILLtoYJ:www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/125032+%22The+investigation+against+Lieberman+and+his+daughter+have+been+ongoing+for+years,+but+suddenly+became+active+again+once+he+left+the+government+last+week.%22+site:israelnationalnews.com&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1 Exposé Links Olmert, Lieberman and Sharon to Jericho Casino] Arutz Sheva 01/24/08] Police concluded decisively that Sharon had received a $3 million bribe, and Lieberman is still under investigation for receiving a bribe from Austrian-Jewish businessman Martin Schlaff. [Hillel Fendel. [http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/95989 "Police Say There´s Evidence Linking Sharon to $3 Million Bribe"] Arutz Sheva, 01/03/06]
Yisrael Beiteinu agreed to join Ehud Olmert's government on 23 October 2006, with Lieberman offered the post of Minister of Strategic Affairs. Although many in the Labour Party expressed opposition to Yisrael Beiteinu joining the coalition, the party's central committee approved the new coalition and on 30 October, the Knesset voted the party be included in the government by a margin of 61 to 38. In response, Ophir Pines-Paz, who led the opposition camp in the Labour party, announced his resignation, stating that "Lieberman is himself a strategic threat." [http://www.upi.com/InternationalIntelligence/view.php?StoryID=20061030-042311-5107r Olmert gets hardline partner] United Press International, October 30, 2006.]
However, the party left the coalition on 16 January 2008 in protest at peace talks with the Palestinian National Authority. [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/945299.html Lieberman blasts Arab MKs, pulls party out of government] Ha'aretz, January 16, 2008.]
* [http://www.thefirstpost.co.uk/index.php?menuID=2&subID=1061 The appointment of Israel’s new deputy PM raises fears of a new catastrophe, says Robert Fox]
*Gilad Katz: [http://omedia.org/Show_Article.asp?DynamicContentID=1875&MenuID=608&ThreadID=1014011 Avigdor Liberman – Politician or Statesman?] ("Omedia", 22 October 2006)
*Akiva Eldar: [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/780996.html Let's hear it for the Haiders] Ha'aretz, October 31, 2006.
* [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=783926 PM: Lieberman opinion on trading Arabs not my own] Ha'aretz, November 5, 2006.
* [http://www.beytenu.org Official website of Yisrael Beiteinu]
NAME = Lieberman, Avigdor Levi
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = אביגדור ליברמן
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Israeli politician
DATE OF BIRTH = 5 June 1958
PLACE OF BIRTH = Kishinev, Moldavian SSR, Soviet Union
DATE OF DEATH =
PLACE OF DEATH =
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Avigdor Kara — Grabmal auf dem Alte jüdische Friedhof i Prag Avigdor Kara († 25. April 1439 i Prag) war ei Rabbier ud Schriftgelehrter. Ihaltsverzeichis 1 Lebe2 Bedeutug3 Literatur4 Webliks // Lebe Avigdor Kara war der Soh des Rabbiers Jizchak…
Ephraim Avigdor Speiser — ( 24. Jauar 1902 i Skalat/Galizie, damals Österreich Ugar, heute Ukraie, Oblast Teropil; † 15. Jui 1965 i Elkis Park, Pesylvaia) war ei amerikaischer Assyriologe polischer Herkuft. Er etdeckte 1927 die…
Lieberman — Lieberma ist der Familieame folgeder Persoe:Avigdor Lieberma ( 1958), israelischer PolitikerBruo Fraz Leopold Lieberma (1759–1844), katholischer TheologeCarl Lieberma (auch Karl Theodor Lieberma; 1842–1914), deutscher…
Joe Lieberman — Joe Lieberma Joseph Isadore Joe Lieberma ( 24. Februar 1942 i Stamford, Coecticut) ist ei Politiker i de Vereiigte Staate. Er vertritt seit 1989 de Budesstaat Coecticut im Seat. Bei der Präsidetschaftswahl 2004 war er ei…
Lieberman — … (Большой англо-русский и русско-английский словарь)
Awigdor Lieberman — Avigdor Lieberma mit US Außemiisteri Codoleezza Rice. Avigdor Lieberma (hebräisch אביגדור ליברמן, Avigdor Liberma; 5. Jui 1958 i Chişiău, Moldawie) ist ei israelischer Politiker ud Vorsitzeder der Partei Lebe Avigdor Lieberma… (Deutsch Wikipedia)